Disorders usually first diagnosed in
infancy, childhood, or adolescence.
Separation Anxiety Disorder--

Separation anxiety disorder (or simply separation anxiety) is a psychological condition in which
an individual has excessive anxiety regarding separation from home or from people to whom the
individual has a strong emotional attachment (like a mother). Present in all age groups, adult
separation anxiety is now believed to be even more common than childhood separation anxiety.
Separation anxiety is often characterized by some of the following symptoms:

* Recurring distress when separated from the subject of attachment (such as the mother or home)

* Persistent, excessive worrying about losing the subject of attachment

* Persistent, excessive worrying that some event will lead to separation from a major attachment

* Excessive fear about being alone without subject of attachment

* Persistent reluctance or refusal to go to sleep without being near a major attachment figure, like a
mother

* Recurrent nightmares about separation

Often, separation anxiety is a symptom of a co-morbid condition. Studies show that children
suffering from separation anxiety are much more likely to have ADHD, bipolar disorder, panic
disorder, and others later in life.

Anxiety disorder is a blanket term covering several different forms of abnormal, pathological anxiety,
fears, phobias and nervous conditions that are described as an irrational or illogical worry that is not
based on fact. The term anxiety disorder can cover a range of severities from general social anxieties
to panic disorders.

Anxiety and fear are ubiquitous emotions. The terms anxiety and fear have specific scientific
meanings, but common usage has made them interchangeable. For example, a phobia is a kind of
anxiety that is also defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition
(DSM-IV-TR) as a "persistent or irrational fear." Fear is defined as an emotional and physiological
response to a recognized external threat (e.g., a runaway car or an impending crash in an airplane).
Anxiety is an unpleasant emotional state, the sources of which are less readily identified. It is
frequently accompanied by physiological symptoms that may lead to fatigue or even exhaustion.
Because fear of recognized threats causes similar unpleasant mental and physical changes, patients
use the terms fear and anxiety interchangeably. Thus, there is little need to strive to differentiate
anxiety from fear. However, distinguishing among different anxiety disorders is important, since
accurate diagnosis is more likely to result in effective treatment and a better prognosis.

Diagnosis

Anxiety disorders are often debilitating chronic conditions, which can be present from an early age
or begin suddenly after a triggering event. They are prone to flare up at times of high stress.

A good assessment is essential for the initial diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, preferably using a
standardized interview or questionnaire procedure alongside expert evaluation and the views of the
affected person. There should be a medical examination in order to identify possible medical
conditions that can cause the symptoms of anxiety. A family history of anxiety disorders is often
suggestive of the possibility of an anxiety disorder. Although rare, it is important not to exclude the
possibility of a pheochromocytoma. The presence of a pheochromocytoma is normally accompanied
by paroxysms of headache, sweating, palpitations, and hypertension.

It is important to note that a patient with an anxiety disorder will often exhibit symptoms of Clinical
Depression and vice-versa. Rarely does a patient exhibit symptoms of only one or the other.

Treatment

The choices in treatment include behavioral therapy, lifestyle changes and/or pharmaceutical therapy
(medications). Sometimes a change in lifestyle is all that a person needs to treat the anxiety. With
most, however, getting relief can be far more complex.

There is some controversy over how to treat anxiety disorders. Mainstream treatment for anxiety
consists of the prescription of anxiolytic agents and/or antidepressants and/or referral to a
cognitive-behavioral therapist. Treatment controversy arises because, while some studies indicate
that a combination of the medications and behavioral therapy can be more effective than either one
alone, other studies have shown that the majority of anxiety disorder sufferers benefit most from
pharmaceutical therapy (and not so much from behavioral therapy).

The right treatment may depend very much on the individual's genetics and environmental factors.
Therefore, to get the best treatment results, it is important to work closely with a psychiatrist,
therapist or counselor who is familiar with anxiety disorders and current treatments.

A number of drugs can be used to treat these disorders. These include benzodiazepines (such as
Xanax), antidepressants of most of the main classes (SSRI, TCAs, MAOIs), and possibly Quetiapine.
Principles of Attachment Parenting—

Per Dr. Sears' theory of Attachment Parenting (AP), proponents such as the API attempt to foster a secure bond with their
children by promoting eight principles, which are identified as goals for parents to strive for. These eight principles are:

1.        Engage in Nighttime Parenting
2.        Feed with Love and Respect
3.        Practice Positive Discipline
4.        Preparation for Pregnancy, Birth and Parenting
5.        Provide Consistent Loving Care
6.        Respond with Sensitivity
7.        Strive for Balance in Personal and Family Life
8.        Use Nurturing Touch

These values are interpreted in a variety of ways across the movement. Many attachment parents also choose to live
a natural family living (NFL) lifestyle, such as natural childbirth, home birth, stay-at-home parenting, co-sleeping,
breastfeeding, babywearing, homeschooling, unschooling, the anti-circumcision movement, the anti-vaccination
movement, natural health, cooperative movements, and support of organic food.

However, Dr. Sears does not require a parent to strictly follow any set of rules, instead encouraging parents to be creative
in responding to their child's needs. AP, outside the guise of Dr. Sears, focuses on responses that support secure
attachments.

How to create healthy attachments with infants—

According to Gonzales-Mena and Eyer, an infant establishes trust through a process of establishing a secure attachment
with a parent or caregiver. In order for an infant to develop a trusting relationships with his or her parent or caregiver, the
infant must receive consistent and attentive and appropriate care from the same parent or caregiver. The infant will develop
a healthy, secure, and satisfying attachment when he or she is receiving consistent and attentive and appropriate care from
the same parent or caregiver. A caregiver or parent must satisfy all of the infant's physical, emotional, psychological,
cognitive, and social needs.

According to Magda Gerber and Allison Johnson (1998), in order for caregivers or parents to teach infants how to respect
themselves and others, it is important for caregivers and parents to respect the infants the same way they would respect
an adult or older child. Magda Gerber and Allison Johnson (1998) believed infants need to receive respect from their
caregivers in order to develop trust and attachment. Attachment and trust are build through interaction. The interaction
between the adult and infant should be respectful, reciprocal, and responsive. The caregiver or parent should interact with
the child psychically and emotionally. When a caregiver or parent is performing daily routines with the infant, the parent or
caregiver should interact with the infant and spend quality time with the infant.

Caregivers and parents should treat the infant like a competent human being by communicating with the infant, following
the infant's lead and responding to the infant's gestures or reactions. The caregiver or parent should include the infant in
the diapering, grooming and feeding routines. For instance, when a parent is changing an infant's diaper, the parent should
talk to the infant. The parent should explain to the infant what he or she is doing. When a parent is dressing an infant, the
parent can explain to the infant what he or she is doing. Caregivers or parents should not rush the infant when they are
performing these routines.

According to Ronald (1990) a caregiver or parent's job is defined as the following: helping a child feel accepted, assisting
children in learning to communicate and get along with others, and encouraging feelings of empathy and respect amongst
children and adults.

According to the psychoanalyst, Erick Erickson, there are eight stages of social-emotional development across a lifespan.
Each stage has a conflict, which needs to be worked through and a functional balance should be achieved in order to have
a healthy development. The first stage of psychosocial development is trust vs. mistrust, which occurs during infancy.

In order for infants to establish trust and develop an attachment with a caregiver or parent, the infants should be trusted
by caregivers and parents. According to Magda Gerber and Allison Johnson(1998), infants establish trust with a parent
or caregiver when the parent and caregiver gives them the freedom to actively explore their environment with limited
restrictions and boundaries. According to Eric Erickson, an infant who develops a healthy balance of trust vs. mistrust, will
have an easier time developing an autonomy, which is the next stage of socio-emotional development. According to Magda
Gerber and Allison Johnson (1998), it is important for caregivers and parents to use every opportunity as a learning
opportunity for infants. Daily routines are windows of opportunities for parents and caregivers to help infants and caregivers
establish trust and build attachment with infants.

Examples to help parents and caregivers create healthy attachments with infants--

According to the psychoanalyst, Erick Erickson, there are eight stages of social-emotional development across a lifespan.
Each stage has a conflict, which needs to be worked through and a functional balance should be achieved in order to have
a healthy development. The first stage of psychosocial development is trust vs. mistrust, which occurs during infancy.
According to Gonzales-Mena and Eyer, an infant establishes trust through a process of establishing a secure attachment
with a parent or caregiver. In order for an infant to develop a trusting relationships with his or her parent or caregiver, the
infant must receive consistent and attentive and appropriate care from the same parent or caregiver. The infant will develop
a healthy, secure, and satisfying attachment when he or she is receiving consistent and attentive and appropriate care from
the same parent or caregiver. A caregiver or parent must satisfy all of the infant's physical, emotional, psychological,
cognitive, and social needs.

According to Ronald (1990) a caregiver or parent's job is defined as the following: helping a child feel accepted, assisting
children in learning to communicate and get along with others, and encouraging feelings of empathy and respect amongst
children and adults.

According to Magda Gerber and Allison Johnson (1998), in order for caregivers or parents to teach infants how to respect
themselves and others, it is important for caregivers and parents to respect the infants the same way they would respect
an adult or older child. Magda Gerber and Allison Johnson (1998) believed infants need to receive respect from their
caregivers in order to develop trust and attachment. Attachment and trust are build through interaction. The interaction
between the adult and infant should be respectful, reciprocal, and responsive. The caregiver or parent should interact with
the child psychically and emotionally. When a caregiver or parent is performing daily routines with the infant, the parent or
caregiver should interact with the infant and spend quality time with the infant.

Caregivers and parents should treat the infant like a competent human being by communicating with the infant, following
the infant's lead and responding to the infant's gestures or reactions. The caregiver or parent should include the infant in
the diapering, grooming and feeding routines. For instance, when a parent is changing an infant's diaper, the parent should
talk to the infant. The parent should explain to the infant what he or she is doing. When a parent is dressing an infant, the
parent can explain to the infant what he or she is doing. Caregivers or parents should not rush the infant when they are
performing these routines.

In order for infants to establish trust and develop an attachment with a caregiver or parent, the infants should be trusted
by caregivers and parents. According to Magda Gerber and Allison Johnson(1998), infants establish trust with a parent
or caregiver when the parent and caregiver gives them the freedom to actively explore their environment with limited
restrictions and boundaries. According to Eric Erickson, an infant who develops a healthy balance of trust vs. mistrust, will
have an easier time developing an autonomy, which is the next stage of socio-emotional development. According to Magda
Gerber and Allison Johnson (1998), it is important for caregivers and parents to use every opportunity as a learning
opportunity for infants. Daily routines are windows of opportunities for parents and caregivers to help infants and caregivers
establish trust and build attachment with infants.

Discipline—

Attachment parents seek to understand the biological and psychological needs of the children, and to avoid unrealistic
expectations of child behavior. In setting boundaries and limits that are appropriate to the age of the child, AP takes into
account the physical and psychological stage of development that the child is currently experiencing. In this way, parents
may seek to avoid the frustration that occurs when they expect things their child is not capable of.

AP holds that it is of vital importance to the survival of the child that he be capable of communicating his needs to the adults
and having those needs promptly met. Dr. Sears advises that while still an infant, the child is mentally incapable of outright
manipulation. Sears says that in the first year of life, a child's needs and wants are one and the same. Unmet needs are
believed, by Dr. Sears and other AP proponents, to surface beginning immediately in attempts to fulfill that which was left
unmet.

AP looks at child development as well as infant and child biology to determine the psychologically and biologically
appropriate response at different stages. AP does not mean meeting a need that a child can fulfill himself. It means
understanding what the needs are, when they arise, how they change over time and circumstances, and being flexible in
devising ways to respond appropriately. Also their job is to come up with ideas of things to do for their children.

Similar practices are called natural parenting, instinctive parenting, intuitive parenting, immersion parenting or "continuum
concept" parenting.